Diabetes mellitus is a disease that often affects and can cause serious disorders of the eye, the Diabetic Retinopathy. Developed countries diabetic retinopathy is one of the major causes of blindness in the productive age. The risk of blindness will increase in line with the duration of suffering from diabetes, therefore it is very important for us to know more about the complications of diabetes mellitus on the eye and know how what to do, so as to reduce the risk of blindness due to diabetic retinopathy.
The study found that the duration of suffering from diabetes mellitus is an important factor for diabetic retinopathy risk. Diabetes for 17-25 years had a 90% risk for the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy. The factors that are risk factors are hypertension, smoking, kidney disease, and anemia. Diabetes can lead to several other eye diseases such as cataracts and glaucoma.
Diabetic retinopathy can cause blindness through several mechanisms, ie:
- Leakage of blood plasma through the damaged retinal blood vessels, causing swelling and damage.
- Bleeding into the vitreous cavity, thus covering the light path.
- The formation of scar tissue in the vitreous cavity so that it can cause traction on the retina causing retinal detachments.
- Reduced blood flow to the central retina (macula ischemic)
Diabetic retinopathy, consisting of
1. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is mild and is not a serious stage. However at this stage may also lead to decreased vision due to the leakage of blood vessels in the macula. Patients should be wary, because in a period of 2 years can occur progression to more severe stages.
2. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is a severe stage, characterized by the formation of blood vessels.
Tight control of blood sugar levels can reduce the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Well controlled blood pressure and kidney function may also contribute both to improve the situation of retinopathy.
Diabetic retinopathy can be treated well if not too late, and therefore do not forget the regular doctor visits for a consultation.